Research & publications for health professionals

 
Many clinical studies were published in renown journals showing palm tocotrienols exerts beneficial effects in supporting brain, liver, heart and skin health.

Our current ongoing research includes:
  1. Diabetic neuropathy study led by Professor Dr. Yuen Kah Hay from Universiti Sains Malaysia
  2. Breast cancer study led by Professor Dr. Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty G. K from International Medical University
  3. Post stroke study led by Professor Dr. Chandan K Sen from Ohio State University
  4. Parkinson disease study led by Professor Tan Eng King from National Neuroscience Institute

PUBLISHED CLINICAL STUDIES ON PALM TOCOTRIENOLS
YEAR STUDY & PUBLICATION NUMBER OF SUBJECTS DURATION DOSAGE INDICATION
2014 Clinical Investigation of the Protective Effects of Palm Vitamin E Tocotrienols on Brain White Matter.

Stroke Journal

121 2 years 200mg, twice daily Brain (stroke)
2013 Vitamin E tocotrienols supplementation improves lipid profiles in chronic hemodialysis patients.

Vascular Health and Risk Management Journal

81 4 months 180mg Lipid profiles (cholesterol and cardiovascular disease)
2013 The Effect of Vitamin E (Mixed Tocotrienols) on the Liver Stiffness Measurement Measured by Transient Elastography (FibroScan) among NAFLD Patients

 

67 3 months 100mg Liver (Non-alcoholicfatty liver disease)
2013 Tocotrienols for normalisation of hepatic echogenic response in nonalcoholic fatty liver: a randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial

Nutrition Journal

87 1 year 200mg, twice daily Liver (Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease)
2012 Oral tocotrienols are transported to human tissues and delay the progression of the model for end-stage liver disease score in patients.

Nutrition Journal

48 4 months 200mg, twice daily Liver (end stage liver disease)
2011 Effect of Mixed-Tocotrienols in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects

Functional Foods in Health and Disease Journal

32 6 months 300mg Heart (Cardiovascular)
2010 Effects of tocotrienols supplementation on hair growth in human volunteers.

Tropical Life Sciences Research Journal

38 8 months 50mg, twice a day Hair growth
2008 Arterial compliance and vitamin E blood levels with a self emulsifying preparation of tocotrienols rich vitamin E.

Archives of Pharmacal Research Journal

36 2 months 50mg, 100mg, 200mg Heart (cardiovascular)
2007 Comparative study of the effect of tocotrienols and tocopherol on fasting serum lipid profiles in patients with mild hypercholesterolaemia: a preliminary report.

The Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal

44 1 month 50mg Heart (cardiovascular)
2007 Tocotrienols and Hair growth Formulation

Tropical Life Science Research

19 5 months 50mg, twice a day Hair growth

PUBLISHED IN VITRO AND IN VIVO STUDIES ON PALM TOCOTRIENOLS
YEAR STUDY & PUBLICATION NUMBER OF SUBJECTS DURATION DOSAGE INDICATION
2015 Preventive Effects of Tocotrienols on Stress-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions and Its Relation to Oxidative and Inflammatory Biomarkers.

PLOS One Journal

28 rats 28 days 60 mg/kg Gastroprotective effects (peptic ulcer)
2011 Tocotrienols vitamin E protects against preclinical canine ischemic stroke by inducing arteriogenesis.

Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Journal

20 mongrel canines 4 months 200 mg Stroke
2011 Natural vitamin E α-tocotrienols protects against ischemic stroke by induction of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1

Stroke Journal

35 mouse 3 months and 1 week 50 mg/kg Stroke
2010 Nanomolar vitamin E alpha-tocotrienols inhibits glutamate-induced activation of phospholipase A2 and causes neuroprotection.

Neurochemistry Journal

Cell culture NIL NIL Stroke (Neuroprotection)
2009 Tocotrienols as natural neuroprotective vitamins

Tocotrienols: Vitamin E Beyond Tocopherols Book

NIL NIL NIL Stroke (Neuroprotection)
2007 Protection of cerebellar granule cells by tocopherols and tocotrienols against methylmercury toxicity.

Brain Research Journal

Cell culture NIL NIL Stroke
2007 Regulation of c-Src activity in glutamate-induced neurodegeneration.

Biological Chemistry Journal

Cell culture NIL NIL Stroke (Neurodegeneration)
2007 Tocotrienols: the emerging face of natural vitamin E.

Vitamins and Hormone Journal

NIL NIL NIL lowering down cholesterol level, anti-cancer and neuroprotection
2006 Characterization of the potent neuroprotective properties of the natural vitamin E alpha-tocotrienols

Neurochemistry Journal

Cell culture NIL NIL Stroke (Neuroprotective)
2005 Neuroprotective Properties of The Natural Vitamin E α-Tocotrienols

Stroke Journal

Cell culture NIL NIL Stroke (Neuroprotective)
2004 Tocotrienols: the natural vitamin E to defend the nervous system?

Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences

NIL NIL NIL Stroke (Nervous system)
2003 Molecular basis of vitamin E action: tocotrienols modulates 12-lipoxygenase, a key mediator of glutamate-induced neurodegeneration.

Biological Chemistry Journal

Cell culture NIL NIL Stroke (Neurodegeneration)
2000 Molecular basis of Vitamin E action - Tocotrienols potently inhibits glutamate-induced pp60(c-Src) kinase activation and death of HT4 neuronal cells

Biological Chemistry Journal

NIL NIL NIL Stroke (Neuroprotective)
An Insight to Palm Tocotrienols Publication

  1. The clinical importance of white matter hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging: systematic review and meta-analysis

    British Medical Journal

    Abstract:
    There was a contradiction between few studies on the association of white matter hyperintensities towards the risk of stroke, cognitive decline, dementia and death. This has led to a systematic review and meta-analysis by a group of scientist on all the published longitudinal studies. This review had concluded that white matter hyperintensities could be used to predict an increased risk of stroke, dementia and death in human. Also, white matter hyperintensities could be used to assess treatment efficacy towards stroke and dementia patients.

  2. Tocotrienols vitamin E protects against preclinical canine ischemic stroke by inducing arteriogenesis

    Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Journal

    Abstract:
    Natural vitamin E consist of 2 forms, tocopherols and tocotrienols. A study was conducted to analyse the efficacy of tocotrienols content in association with ischemic stroke with mongrel canine as the subject. Results showed that tocotrienols possess a unique biological function compared to tocopherols on the cerebrovascular circulation during ischemic stroke. Tocotrienol enriched supplementation could significantly attenuate ischemic stroke in rodents.

    Hence, this has led to another stage for a clinical trial testing on the effects of tocotrienols in patients who have suffered from transient ischemic attack and whom at a high risk of stroke.

  3. Clinical investigation of the protective effects of palm vitamin E tocotrienols on brain white matter.

    Stroke Journal

    Abstract:
    Previous cell-based and animal studies showed mixed tocotrienols are neuroprotective, but the effect is yet to be proven in humans. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the protective activity of mixed tocotrienols in humans with white matter lesions (WMLs). White matter hyperintensities showed the evidence of association with risk of stroke and dementia. A clinical study was conducted to analyse the effects of consuming mixed tocotrienols in relationship with WMLs and they found that consuming mixed tocotrienols with a dosage of 200 mg twice a day were able to attenuate the progression of WMLs.

  1. Oral Tocotrienols Are Transported to Human Tissues and Delay the Progression of the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Score in Patients.

    Nutrition Journal

    Abstract:
    A study was conducted to determine the concentrations of tocotrienols and tocopherols concentration in vital tissues and organs of adult humans to healthy group and surgical patients. Results showed that healthy adults who consumed 200 mg of tocotrienols twice a day versus tocopherols consumption has a higher concentration of vitamin E found in skin and blood. Also, another study was conducted to surgical patients who had heart transplant recipients with end-stage heart failure, liver from transplant recipients with end-stage liver, adipose acquired from abdominal adipose tissue of morbidly obese patients undergoing reconstructive plastic surgery and brain tissue from recalcitrant epilepsy patients requiring resection were randomized supplemented with tocotrienol and tocopherol. Studies showed that oral tocotrienol supplementation has an increased level of tocotrienol in every vital organ tested compared to those supplemented with tocopherol. In prospective liver transplantation patients, oral tocotrienol lowered the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in 50% of patients supplemented, whereas only 20% of tocopherol-supplemented patients demonstrated a reduction in MELD score. This study concluded that healthy human or surgical patients that consumed tocotrienols within a short duration had detectable levels of tocotrienols in tissue especially liver, skin, brain and heart.

  2. Tocotrienols for normalisation of hepatic echogenic response in nonalcoholic fatty liver: a randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Nutrition Journal

    Abstract:
    Prevalence of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in Asia has been showed in a recent review to be similar to Western countries with local data in hypercholesterolaemic adults indicating a NAFLD prevalence of about 60%. To date, there is lack of understood reasons for NAFLD progression to much severe form of liver diseases. This has led to a study to evaluate the activity of tocotrienols in NAFLD. Eighty-seven untreated hypercholesterolaemic adults with ultrasound-proven NAFLD were subjected to this study by randomizing the supplementation of tocotrienol and tocopherols. The present study showed that patients consumming tocotrienols have significantly benefited in terms of normalisation of the hepatic echogenic response in NAFLD compared to placebo during the 1-year treatment.

  1. Effect of Mixed-Tocotrienols in Hypercholesterolemic Subjects

    Functional Foods in Health and Disease Journal

    Abstract:
    A study was conducted to analyse the effects of consuming mixed tocotrienol as daily supplement intake on cholesterol level in human. Thirty-two randomly subject were supplemented with 300 mg of tocotrienols and 300 mg of soya bean oil. After 5 months of supplements, the subject serum was analysed for the level of total and LDL cholesterol. Results concluded that subjects who were supplemented with mixed tocotrienols with a dosage of 300 mg per day resulted in the lowering of the serum total and LDL cholesterol levels after 5 months of supplementations compared to placebo group.

  2. Arterial compliance and vitamin E blood levels with a self emulsifying preparation of tocotrienol rich vitamin E.

    Archives of Pharmacal Research Journal

    Abstract:
    A study was conducted to analyse the arterial compliance with self-emulsifying preparation tocotrienol as the absorption for tocotrienols is low due to the high lipid solubility. A randomized, placebo controlled, blinded end point clinical was used to investigate 50 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg of tocotrienols and placebo for two months on arterial compliance and vitamin E blood levels with 36 healthy males. During these 2 months’ supplementations with tocotrienol, there is a significant increase of higher plasma alpha, delta and gamma tocotrienol concentrations compared to placebo by comparing the serum before supplement and after 2 months of supplement. Also, when these subject were tested with carotid femoral pulse wave velocity and augmentation index results showed that there is a significant improvement for arterial compliance within the supplemented tocotrienol for 100 mg and 200 mg dosage compared with the placebo group.

  3. Dose dependent elevation of plasma tocotrienol levels and its effect on arterial compliance, plasma total antioxidant status, and lipid profile in healthy humans supplemented with tocotrienol rich vitamin E.

    Nutritional science and vitaminology Journal

    Abstract:
    Tocotrienols contains high potent of antioxidants activity. A study was conducted with 36 healthy males to analyse the dosage that could affect the arterial compliance, plasma total antioxidant status, aortic systolic blood pressure, serum total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. A group of randomized male subjects either took the tocotrienols with 80, 160 or 320 mg daily and placebo were conducted for 2 months. Results were taken before and after 2 months of supplements for baseline tocotrienols isomer concentrations with low level and some were unable to be detected. However, subject who consumed 160 and 320 mg of tocotrienols showed a significant improvement for aortic systolic blood pressure and plasma total antioxidant status respectively.

  1. Tocotrienols fight cancer by targeting multiple cell signaling pathways

    Genes and Nutrition Journal

    Abstract:
    Tocotrienol is a member of vitamin E and exhibited miraculous anticancer properties. It could act as multitargeted drugs particularly in inhibiting nuclear factor-κB, as a signal transducer and activator of transcription, death receptors, apoptosis, nuclear factor, hypoxia inducible factor, growth factor receptor kinases and angiogenetic pathways. All these findings were supported, reviewed and summarized from various in vitro and in vivo studies.

  2. Tocotrienols and breast cancer: the evidence to date

    Genes and Nutrition Journal

    Abstract:
    Breast cancer is the second deadliest disease affecting women worldwide. The toxicity of current drug has drawn much interest to scientist to investigate other natural resources that could act as anticancer agents. This has led to a new finding of tocotrienol which exhibits remarkable biological properties. In this study, a clinical trial has concluded that gamma tocotrienol in combination with tamoxifen could exhibit potential anticancer agents that could be used to enhance therapeutic responsiveness in breast cancer patients and extend the survival rate of this victim.

  1. Clinical evaluation of photoprotective effect by a topical antioxidants combination (tocopherols and tocotrienols).

    European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology Journal

    Abstract:
    Vitamin had been well recognized for its antioxidant properties. A recent study reviewed that a member of vitamin E, tocotrienols have superior activity than tocopherols. This had led to a clinical study on the effects of photoprotective properties. In this study, 30 patients with photosensitivity were subjected to antioxidant formulation and another which does not undergo any treatment or with vitamin A. The antioxidant formulation, vitamin E contains 10% of tocopherols and 0.3% of tocotrienols. The pre-treatment with the vitamin E formulation highly protects against photosensitivity, and all reactions to irradiation were significantly lower in the areas treated with the topical vitamin E formulation compared to those treated with untreated or vitamin A. This concludes new topical formulation containing significant concentrations of tocotrienols and tocopherols represents a promising strategy to reduce the photo-induced skin damage.

  2. Effects of Tocotrienols on Life Span and Protein Carbonylation in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Gerontology Journal

    Abstract:
    A study has been conducted to analyse the efficiency of tocotrienols against the oxidative damage using nematode model, the Caenorhanditis elegans. The level of accumulation of protein crabonly was used to indicate the oxidative damage during aging. The administered C. elegans were divided into 2 groups, pre-administered tocotrienol and non-administered tocotrienol as control. When these group of model exposed to ultraviolet B irradiation, results showed pre-administered of tocotrienols extended the life span more than the non-treated group. Also, the post-administered tocotrienols also improved the life span of the subject. These data indicated that tocotrienols could be used as a possible agent for antiaging and oxidative stress prevention.

Molecular Nutrition & Food Research Journal

  1. Vitamin E tocotrienols improve insulin sensitivity through activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    Vitamin E is comprised of two main groups, namely tocopherols and tocotrienols. Studies has shown that tocotrienols could reduce the levels of blood glucose in human and animal models. A study has been conducted to investigate the mechanistic of tocotrienols action by analyzing the peroxisome activated receptors (PPAR) for a, g and d. This study had concluded that tocotrienols could enhanced the interaction between the purified ligand-binding domain of PPARa with the receptor-interacting motif of coactivator PPARg coactivator-1a. Also, palm tocotrienols could improve the glucose utilization in the body and has high insulin sensitivity particularly in diabetic mice by selectively regulating PPAR target genes. These studies suggested that PPARs could represent a set of molecular targets of tocotrienols.